Response to discussion | Social Science homework help

Response to discussion | Social Science homework help


write one responses to the two colleagues in one of the following ways:

  • Provide an alternative suggestion of how program evaluation can be used.
  • Provide support or an alternative perspective on the elements of program evaluation.




RE: Discussion – Week 1 1st personAttachment



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As a State Correctional employee, we often use evaluations to analyze in-service training, policy reviews, programs and services, etc. It may seem as if we are over evaluating; however, this helps to ensure our services are effective. Westat (2010) says the two reasons program evaluation exists, as written for the National Science Foundation, is to “improve a project” and “document what has been achieved” (p. 3). The most consistent with my interest is program improvement. For instance, we had four different in-service courses with the same course information. An evaluation was passed out to the students at the end of the course to provide their opinion of the course. The comments prompted the instructors to redesign four courses into one. Evaluations are essential tool in Corrections because it allows us to document our achievements, which will result in data to support our reentry programs.


Westat, J. F. (Ed.). (2010). The 2010 user-friendly handbook for project evaluation. Retrieved





initial post WK1D1 Attachment



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            In my work with community corrections, I have not conducted any type of program evaluation; however, I understand program evaluation is designed to answer some key questions about a program’s effectiveness to the stakeholders (community, participants and staff).  The overarching idea behind program evaluation is to ascertain if those who should benefit from the program are actually benefiting and if those performing the services to the community are skilled at providing the services. Another important aspect of program evaluation is to determine whether the allocated resources for the services are sufficient for addressing the needs of the population (The Program Manager’s Guide to Evaluation, 2010).

            In looking at this week’s resources, Langbein (2012) identifies some distinct differences between program and project (p.3). A program is described as “ongoing services or activities” (Langbein, 2012, p. 3) while projects are intended to be one-time activities that has long-lasting sustainable impact on communities (p. 3). Thus, program evaluations should help determine the extent of a program’s success or lack thereof (what works and what does not work) as well as provide insight on navigating areas where unexpected circumstances occur (Westat, 2010). In short, program evaluations provide managers and administrators the data needed to prove or disprove the value of a program which ultimately impacts the design, management and funding of a project (p. 4).

            In my current job capacity, I have observed a program that had been used within the agency for several years dismantled within a matter of weeks due to the lack of support from stakeholders (judges, state attorneys and public defenders). In all fairness, the lack of support was partially due to the administration’s failure to adequately inform the stakeholders of the program prior to implementation; thus, the parties directly responsible for the punitive sanctions had not been allowed input regarding a program that modified court conditions. This speaks to the fact that buy-in from stakeholders play an integral part in the effectiveness of a program.

            When looking at the various program evaluations, my interest aligns more with summative evaluations because I am more interested in the outputs and outcomes of a program. I plan to focus my research study on the impact of mentorship programs on African American males and criminal behavior; thus, taking into account the resources for a mentorship program, targeted practices of mentorship among the interested group and what specifically about the mentorship program causes the outcome (Langbein, 2012).

Using the summative evaluation in my future professional role could help determine the impact of the program and if the goals of the project was achieved. It could also help determine what works and why it works so that other programs can be designed with similar achievable outcomes.

 Respond to at least two colleagues in the following way:

Comment on what you learned from your colleagues’ posts about influences on today’s governance. What effect might this insight on these influences have on the development of your Dissertation topic {After school program reduce juvenile delinquency}?


RE: Discussion – Week 1  1st person Attachment



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Ronald Myles Dworkin – (1931-2013) was an American philosopher and scholar of constitutional law.  His research earned him a Holdberg international memorial prize in humanities and for the contribution he made around the world.  Dworkin’s concern for equality lead him to investigate and write about the government, ethics, laws, justice, democracy or right.  In Taking truth and A matter of principle established his focal meaning of quality as it relates to the natural right of men and women and respect.  His human right project came under criticism due to his value of equality of personal autonomy, but failing to accept personal equality of personal worth (Finegan, 2015).


 John Bordley Rawles was an American philosopher and leading figure in moral and political philosophy Rawls is credited with foreseen the affects of utilitarianism on justice, moral, economic and political reasoning. Rawls moved away from utilitarianism when his work pose a treat to dignity of those individuals (Weithman, 2003).  He developed a theory of justice that would use contract tradition of autonomy and strengthen liberalism and progressivism (Weithman, 2003).  He was credited having staller understanding of the politics that his writing provided answers to the issue of those time. He was one of the few philosophers who believe that human being are capable of goodness through devotion. In fact, he said “human goodness is demonstrated through their appreciation for high culture in work of sacrifice and deviation. He does not deny that humans are capable of goodness, love, generosity. He believes that things that are valuable to human life have no value unless they are “apart of life plan (Weitzman, 2003).


 Judith Butler is an American Post –structuralism philosopher. She is known as the most influential voice of feminism. Her work contributed to felids of feminist philosophy, queer theory and political philosophy.  She addressed gender violence and international human rights as they relate to sex/gender.  It was these questions and lead to gender violence. Particularly violence against women.  The theorizations of violence against women have it roots in social structure and what society perceives as right or wrong. It her question and, passion that give her voice importance to feminism.

2nd person [removed][removed]

RE: Discussion – Week 1 Attachment



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John Bordley Rawls (1921 – 2002), was an American philosopher of the Theory of Justice.

Rawls believed that in a democratic system of government society members may not all agree on the rules governing social contracts but most agree that the rules are in place for the greater good of everyone. Rawls also believed that liberty and freedom are both important in order to have social justice in a democratic society. He further believed that citizens living in a democratic society are free and equal living under a fair system of social cooperation.

 Robinson, (2010), explains, “Rawls’  conception  of  social  justice  is  developed  around  the  idea  of  a  social contract, whereby people freely enter into an agreement to follow certain rules for the betterment of everyone, without considering the implications of these rules for their own selfish gain. Rawls posits that rational, free people will agree to play by the rules under fair conditions and that this agreement is necessary to assure social justice because public support is critical to the acceptance of the rules of the game. These rules or principles ‘‘specify the basic rights and duties to be assigned by the main  political  and  social  institutions,  and  they  regulate  the  division  of  benefits arising  from  social  cooperation  and  allot  the  burdens  necessary  to  sustain  it”, (P.79).

H. George Frederickson, (1934- Present), is a generalist in the field of public administration.  Theory of Social Equity

 H. George Frederickson is concerned with fair, just and equal distribution of public services and public policies that promoted fairness in the distribution of services to societal members.   Frederickson on found that public programs were not implemented fairly to all societal members and thought this to be unfair and unjust. Frederickson, (2005), explains, “Efficient and economical management of government agencies characterizes the ethics that guided much early reasoning in American public administration. The logic of those ethics allowed public administrators to assume that the effects of good management, efficiency, and economy would be evenly and fairly distributed among our citizens. Gradually, however, public administration began to acknowledge that many public programs were implemented much more efficiently and effectively for some citizens than for others. Indeed, public administrators could not logically claim to be without responsibility for some practices that resulted in obvious unfairness and injustice, so an argument emerged for social equity as an added ethic in public administration”, (P.32).

Frederickson was so interested in social equality that in developed the theory of social equity in an effort to bring attention to the unfairness and inequality in public administration.  Wooldridge, (2009), explains, “H. George Frederickson (1990) wrote that he developed the theory of social equity in the late 1960s to remedy a glaring inadequacy in both thought and practice”, (P.1).

Ronald Myles Dworkin, (1931 – 2013), was an American philosopher and scholar of constitutional law.

Dworkins believed that a just government treats it citizens with respect and its citizens should be able to exercise their rights to by the government, listening to their prospective on decisions or laws being made. Valentini, (2013), explains, “First, the principle of equal respect for persons is arguably the greatest common denominator of contemporary liberal theories of justice. Ronald Dworkin famously claims that a just government must treat its citizens with equal concern and respect. John Rawls’s and Ronald Dworkin’s. In Rawls’s view, the correct principles of justice are those which would be unanimously agreed upon by the parties in the ‘original position’, namely by citizen representatives, ignorant of their specific identities, talents, abilities and social positions. In Dworkin’s view, a distribution of resources is just when, given a fair background securing people’s liberties, no one envies the resource package possessed by others. Only under those conditions can the social division of resources be acceptable in the eyes of all”, (P.1).

In addition,  Dworkins believed that  judges  should view the legal rights of  their societal members on the basis that laws were created by societal members and that laws should represent justice and fairness through the eyes of societal members and  that laws should be just and fair.

Dworkins, Frederickson and Rawls all greatly contributed to public policy and administration in that they all seek social justice, social equality and fairness in public policy, for all people and in the services in which public agencies provide to its citizens.  All of these philosophers help to ensure and change the mindset of those implementing public policies in an effort to promote fairness and equality in public policies, laws in an effort to ensure that all people are treated fairly and justly and given the same equal opportunities.



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